Biomarkers in cancer patients at risk for venous thromboembolism: data from the AVERT study

Anton Ilich, Vaibhav Kumar, Michael Henderson, Ranjeeta Mallick, Philip Wells, Marc Carrier, Nigel S. Key

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: The mechanisms surrounding cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) are not well characterized. AVERT, a randomized placebo controlled thromboprophylaxis study in ambulatory cancer patients, provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into thrombotic mechanism(s). Methods: All available citrated platelet-free plasma samples collected at the point of randomization from individuals enrolled in the AVERT study were evaluated for the expression of D-dimer, soluble P-selectin (sP- selectin), active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (aPAI-1), clot lysis time (CLT) and activated factor XIa–C1 inhibitor complex (FXIa–C1). We compared the differential expression of sP-selectin, aPAI-1, CLT and FXIa–C1 among individual tumor types with normal controls. We evaluated the impact of disease type (hematologic versus solid organ malignancy) and stage (metastatic versus non-metastatic) on individual biomarker expression. Results: We included 449 AVERT participants in this analysis. Baseline expression of the selected thrombosis biomarkers differed significantly by individual tumor type compared with normal controls. Levels of aPAI-1, CLT, FXIa–C1 and sP-selectin were significantly elevated in individuals with lymphoma compared to individuals with non-metastatic solid organ malignancies (p < 0.05). Individuals with metastatic solid organ disease had elevated levels of D-dimer and sP-selectin compared to those with non-metastatic disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Among a cohort of ambulatory patients at intermediate to high risk of VTE, these exploratory findings suggest that baseline activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways vary significantly by tumor type and disease stage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S31-S36
JournalThrombosis Research
StatePublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomarker
  • Cancer
  • Venous thrombosis


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