6 Scopus citations


Liver cancer incidence rate continues to increase and currently ranks third in the total number of annual deaths, behind only lung and colorectal cancer. Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are diagnosed at advanced stages, and they live for less than 2 years after diagnosis on average. This contrasts with those diagnosed at an early stage, who can be cured with surgery. However, even after curative resection, there remains a risk of up to 70% of postoperative HCC recurrence. There have been major changes in the management of HCC in the past 5 years, particularly for patients at advanced stages. Despite this multitude of new therapies, there is a lack of clear biomarkers to guide providers on the best approach to sequence therapies, which would maximize efficacy while minimizing toxicity. There are several areas in clinical management of HCC that are particularly challenging, and would benefit from development and implementation of new biomarkers to improve patient overall survival. Here, we review the major advances in liquid biopsy biomarkers for early detection of HCC, minimum residual disease, and predicting response to treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-201
Number of pages14
JournalSeminars in Liver Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 May 2022


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