Basic psychometric properties of the transfer assessment instrument (Version 3.0)

Chung Ying Tsai, Laura A. Rice, Claire Hoelmer, Michael L. Boninger, Alicia M. Koontz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Objectives: To refine the Transfer Assessment Instrument (TAI 2.0), develop a training program for the TAI, and analyze the basic psychometric properties of the TAI 3.0, including reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: A winter sports clinic for disabled veterans. Participants: Wheelchair users (N=41) who perform sitting-pivot or standing-pivot transfers. Intervention: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: TAI version 3.0, intraclass correlation coefficients, SEMs, and MDCs for reliable measurement of raters' responses. Spearman correlation coefficient, 1-way analysis of variance, and independent t tests to evaluate construct validity. Results: TAI 3.0 had acceptable to high levels of reliability (range,.74-.88). The SEMs for part 1, part 2, and final scores ranged from.45 to.75. The MDC was 1.5 points on the 10-point scale for the final score. There were weak correlations (ρ range,-.13 to.25; P>.11) between TAI final scores and subjects' characteristics (eg, sex, body mass index, age, type of disability, length of wheelchair use, grip and elbow strength, sitting balance). Conclusions: With comprehensive training, the refined TAI 3.0 yields high reliability among raters of different clinical backgrounds and experience. TAI 3.0 was unbiased toward certain physical characteristics that may influence transfer. TAI fills a void in the field by providing a quantitative measurement of transfers and a tool that can be used to detect problems and guide transfer training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2456-2464
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Outcomes assessment
  • Rehabilitation
  • Reliability and validity
  • Wheelchairs


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