Objectives: Incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is higher in Black patients with disease-specific and overall survival being lower compared with White patients even though renal tumors among Black patients are more likely to be localized. These disparities have been attributed to higher rates of obesity and hypertension, lower rates of nephrectomy, and a lack of access to quality health care. With scant genomic evidence to account for these disparities, the present study sought to compare BAP1 expression between Black and White patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC); a gene that inhibits tumor progression when overexpressed and results in poor clinical outcomes when silenced. Materials and methods: The cancer genome atlas dataset was used to identify 58 (9.9%) Black and 529 (90.9%) White patients with ccRCC with an initial pathologic diagnosis from 1998 to 2013. BAP1 expression was compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. The association between BAP1 expression and pathologic stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, and Fuhrman grade was assessed for the overall cohort and stratified by race. The association between BAP1 expression and overall survival was assessed using Cox proportion hazards models adjusting for Fuhrman grade, pathologic stage, and the presence of pathologic metastases for the overall cohort and stratified by race. Results: The level of BAP1 expression was significantly higher in Black vs. White patients with ccRCC (10.5 vs. 10.3; P<.001). For the overall cohort, increasing BAP1 expression was associated with decreasing pathologic stage (β =-0.25, P = .004) and decreasing AJCC stage (β =-0.029, P = .006). For Black patients, increasing BAP1 expression was associated with decreasing AJCC stage (β =-0.79, P = .016), decreasing Fuhrman grade (β =-0.55, P = .011), and a decreased risk of pathologic metastases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.83, P = .038). For White patients, increasing BAP1 expression was associated with decreasing pathologic stage (β =-0.20, P = .026). Conclusions: BAP1 is significantly overexpressed in Black compared with White patients and is associated with favorable stage. BAP1 overexpression portends distinct pathologic outcomes in Black and White patients demonstrating the need for racial stratification and adequate Black patient sampling in BAP1 biomarker studies.
|Journal||Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations|
|State||Published - 1 Jun 2016|
- Racial disparities
- Renal cell carcinoma
- The Cancer Genome Atlas