The immune status of the tumor microenvironment influences tumor progression, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with an immunosuppressive signature often is associated with a poor prognosis. This study examined the impact of a bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) vaccine loaded with autologous tumor cell lysate on tumor progression and the tumor microenvironment using an orthotopic murine HCC model. An orthotopic murine HCC was established by implantation of Hepa1-6 cells in the liver. The impact of DC vaccine loaded with Hepa1-6 cell lysate on tumor progression, survival, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cytokines was examined. Treating mice with DC vaccine loaded with Hepa1-6 cell lysate inhibited the progression of murine HCC generated through orthotopic implantation of Hepa1-6 cells and resulted in a 90 % survival rate by day 60 compared with a survival rate lower than 5 % for untreated mice. This anti-tumor response was associated with inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation within the tumor. The DC vaccine reduced accumulation of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells within the tumor microenvironment and prevented TGF-β production from the tumor tissue. Tumor cell lysate-loaded DC vaccine prevented HCC progression in a clinically relevant orthotopic murine HCC model. The effect of DC vaccine on the accumulation of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells within the tumor microenvironment and on the production of TGF-β suggests that tumor regression by DC vaccination may be associated with an altered immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.