Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare condition characterized by immune dysfunction with uncontrolled activation of macrophages and hypersecretion of cytokines, has only been reported in a small number of pediatric patients following solid organ transplant (SOT). The diagnosis of HLH after SOT is especially difficult, as several of the diagnostic criteria, including fever, splenomegaly, and cytopenias, are nonspecific and can be seen with other post-transplant complications. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) has also been reported after pediatric SOT and is thought to be related to immunosuppression, specifically tacrolimus. Although HLH and AIHA have been separately described following SOT, there have been no reports of them occurring together in post–liver transplant (LT) patients. We report the first case of autoimmune hemolysis as the presenting symptom of HLH in a pediatric post-LT patient.
- autoimmune hemolytic anemia
- hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)
- living donor liver transplant
- pediatric liver transplantation
- solid organ transplant