Attenuated listeria monocytogenes vectors overcome suppressive plasma factors during HIV infection to stimulate myeloid dendritic cells to promote adaptive immunity and reactivation of latent virus

Elizabeth A. Miller, Meredith R. Spadaccia, Thomas Norton, Morgan Demmler, Ramya Gopal, Meagan O'brien, Nathaniel Landau, Thomas W. Dubensky, Peter Lauer, Dirk G. Brockstedt, Nina Bhardwaj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

HIV-1 infection is characterized by myeloid dendritic cell (DC) dysfunction, which blunts the responsiveness to vaccine adjuvants. We previously showed that nonviral factors in HIV-seropositive plasma are partially responsible for mediating this immune suppression. In this study we investigated recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) vectors, which naturally infect and potently activate DCs from seronegative donors, as a means to overcome DC dysfunction associated with HIV infection. Monocyte-derived DCs were cocultured with plasma from HIV-infected donors (HIV-moDCs) to induce a dysregulated state and infected with an attenuated, nonreplicative vaccine strain of Lm expressing full length clade B consensus gag (KBMA Lm-gag). Lm infection stimulated cytokine secretion [interleukin (IL)-12p70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6] and Th-1 skewing of allogeneic naive CD4 T cells by HIV-moDCs, in contrast to the suppressive effects observed by HIV plasma on moDCs on toll-like receptor ligand stimulation. Upon coculture of "killed" but metabolically active (KBMA) Lm-gag-infected moDCs from HIV-infected donors with autologous cells, expansion of polyfunctional, gag-specific CD8+ T cells was observed. Reactivation of latent proviruses by moDCs following Lm infection was also observed in models of HIV latency in a TNF-α-dependent manner. These findings reveal the unique ability of Lm vectors to contend with dysregulation of HIV-moDCs, while simultaneously possessing the capacity to activate latent virus. Concurrent stimulation of innate and adaptive immunity and disruption of latency may be an approach to reduce the pool of latently infected cells during HIV infection. Further study of Lm vectors as part of therapeutic vaccination and eradication strategies may advance this evolving field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-136
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2015

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