Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Stephen V. Faraone, Mark A. Bellgrove, Isabell Brikell, Samuele Cortese, Catharina A. Hartman, Chris Hollis, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, Alexandra Philipsen, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Katya Rubia, Margaret H. Sibley, Jan K. Buitelaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; also known as hyperkinetic disorder) is a common neurodevelopmental condition that affects children and adults worldwide. ADHD has a predominantly genetic aetiology that involves common and rare genetic variants. Some environmental correlates of the disorder have been discovered but causation has been difficult to establish. The heterogeneity of the condition is evident in the diverse presentation of symptoms and levels of impairment, the numerous co-occurring mental and physical conditions, the various domains of neurocognitive impairment, and extensive minor structural and functional brain differences. The diagnosis of ADHD is reliable and valid when evaluated with standard diagnostic criteria. Curative treatments for ADHD do not exist but evidence-based treatments substantially reduce symptoms and/or functional impairment. Medications are effective for core symptoms and are usually well tolerated. Some non-pharmacological treatments are valuable, especially for improving adaptive functioning. Clinical and neurobiological research is ongoing and could lead to the creation of personalized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for this disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
JournalNature Reviews Disease Primers
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024


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