Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in biomedical research

S. Rao, K. D. Costa

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a form of scanning probe microscopy that achieves sub-nanometer imaging resolution, far exceeding the optical diffraction limit. AFM images, which cannot be achieved with conventional microscopy techniques, reveal aspects of the underlying biophysics that provide new insights for the fields of cell and molecular biology. This chapter presents the basic concepts of AFM and discusses a variety of imaging modes and their application to biological systems. Specialized AFM techniques are also discussed that expand the reach of this method in biomedical imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiomedical Imaging
Subtitle of host publicationApplications and Advances
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)9780857091277
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • AFM
  • Cell imaging
  • Contact mode
  • Force map
  • Intermittent contact mode


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