Associations of maternal urinary bisphenol and phthalate concentrations with offspring reproductive development

Sophia M. Blaauwendraad, Vincent WV Jaddoe, Susana Santos, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Gert R. Dohle, Leonardo Trasande, Romy Gaillard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fetal exposure to bisphenols and phthalates may influence development of the reproductive system. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1059 mother-child pairs, we examined the associations of maternal gestational urinary bisphenols and phthalates concentrations with offspring reproductive development from infancy until 13 years. We measured urinary bisphenol and phthalate concentrations in each trimester. We obtained information on cryptorchidism or hypospadias after birth from medical records. At 9.7 years, we measured testicular and ovarian volume by MRI. At 13.5 years, we measured child Tanner stages and menstruation through questionnaire. We performed linear or logistic regression models for boys and girls to assess the associations of maternal urinary average and trimester-specific bisphenols and phthalates with child reproductive outcomes. Next, to further explore potential synergistic or additive effects of exposures together, we performed mixed exposure models using a quantile g computation approach. Models were adjusted for maternal age, ethnicity, body-mass index, education, parity, energy intake, smoking and alcohol use, and child's gestational age at birth, birthweight and body-mass index. In boys, no associations of maternal gestational phthalate or bisphenol with offspring cryptorchidism and hypospadias were found. Higher maternal high-molecular-weight phthalate and total bisphenol, but not phthalic acid or low-molecular-weight phthalate, were associated with larger child testicular volume at 10 years. Higher maternal phthalic acid and total bisphenol were associated with earlier genital and pubic hair development at 13 years, respectively (p-values<0.05). In girls, we found no associations of maternal urinary bisphenol and phthalate with ovarian volume or menstrual age. Only higher maternal urinary high-molecular-weight phthalate was associated with earlier pubic hair development at 13 years (p-values <0.05). Higher mixture exposure was associated with earlier pubic hair development in both sexes. In conclusion, higher maternal gestational urinary bisphenol and phthalate concentrations were associated with alterations in offspring reproductive development, mainly in boys.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119745
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume309
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bisphenols
  • Phthalates
  • Pregnancy
  • Puberty
  • Reproductive development

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