Associations Between Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution and Congenital Hypothyroidism

Ruthie Harari-Kremer, Ronit Calderon-Margalit, Tim I.M. Korevaar, Daniel Nevo, David Broday, Itai Kloog, Itamar Grotto, Isabella Karakis, Alexandra Shtein, Alon Haim, Raanan Raz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Adequate thyroid hormone availability is required for normal brain development. Studies have found associations between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. We aimed to examine associations of trimester-specific residential exposure to common air pollutants with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT). All term infants born in Israel during 2009-2015 were eligible for inclusion. We used data on CHT from the national neonatal screening lab of Israel, and exposure data from spatiotemporal air pollution models. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate associations of exposures with CHT, adjusting for ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographical area, conception season, conception year, gestational age, birth weight, and child sex. To assess residual confounding, we used postnatal exposures to the same pollutants as negative controls. The study population included 696,461 neonates. We found a positive association between third-trimester nitrogen oxide exposure and CHT (per interquartile-range change, odds ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.41) and a similar association for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence of residual confounding or bias by correlation among exposure periods for these associations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2630-2638
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • air pollution
  • congenital hypothyroidism
  • negative control exposure


Dive into the research topics of 'Associations Between Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollution and Congenital Hypothyroidism'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this