Background: Women represent a meaningful proportion of new HIV diagnoses, with Black women comprising 58% of new diagnoses among women. As HIV infection also increases risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), understanding CKD risk among women with HIV (WWH), particularly Black women, is critical. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study of people with HIV (PWH) enrolled in CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS), a multicentre study comprised of eight academic medical centres across the United States from Jan 01, 1996 and Nov 01, 2019, adult PWH were excluded if they had ≤2 serum creatinine measurements, developed CKD prior to enrollment, or identified as intersex or transgendered, leaving a final cohort of 33,998 PWH. The outcome was CKD development, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1·73 m2 calculated using the CKD-EPI equation, for ≥90 days with no intervening higher values. Findings: Adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, WWH were 61% more likely to develop CKD than men (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1·61, 95% CI: 1·46-1·78, p<0·001). This difference persisted after further adjustment for APOL1 risk variants (aHR female sex: 1·92, 95% CI: 1·63-2·26, p<0·001) and substance abuse (aHR female sex: 1·70, 95% CI: 1·54-1·87, p<0·001). Interpretation: WWH experienced increased risk of CKD. Given disparities in care among patients with end-stage kidney disease, efforts to engage WWH in nephrology care to improve chronic disease management are critical. Funding: US National Institutes of Health.
- Health disparities
- Kidney disease