Association of treatment-resistant hypertension defined by home blood pressure monitoring with cardiovascular outcome

Keisuke Narita, Satoshi Hoshide, Kazuomi Kario

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

In diagnosis of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH), guidelines recommend out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurements, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and home BP monitoring (HBPM). Although evidence of an association between ABPM-evaluated TRH and cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognosis has accumulated, data are sparse regarding HBPM-evaluated TRH. We investigated this issue using data from the nationwide practice-based J-HOP (Japan Morning-Surge Home BP) study, which recruited 4,261 outpatients (mean age 64.9 years; 46.8% men; 91.5% hypertensives) who underwent morning and evening HBPM for 14 days. During 6.2 ± 3.8 years (26,418 person-years) follow-up, 270 total CVDs (stroke, coronary artery disease, aortic dissection, and heart failure) occurred. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CIs) of uncontrolled TRH, i.e., uncontrolled BP using 3 classes of medications including diuretics or ≥4 classes of medications, for total CVD risk compared to controlled BP using <3 classes were 2.02 (1.38–2.94) and 1.81 (1.23–2.65) in home BP of 135/85 mmHg and 130/80 mmHg, respectively. Additionally, patients with TRH defined by guidelines, i.e., uncontrolled BP using 3 classes of medications including diuretics or controlled/uncontrolled BP using ≥4 classes of medications, also had higher total CVD risk compared to non-TRH under all home BP criteria. Moreover, in patients with uncontrolled apparent-TRH, i.e., TRH defined by office BP, uncontrolled home BP (≥135/85 mmHg) was still associated with atherosclerotic CVD (CVDs except heart failure) risk (adjusted HR [95% CI], 2.38 [1.09–5.19]). This is the first study to demonstrate an independent association between TRH evaluated by HBPM and CVD outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-86
Number of pages12
JournalHypertension Research
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease prognosis
  • Home blood pressure monitoring
  • Treatment-resistant hypertension

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