Association of Severity of Dry Eye Disease with Work Productivity and Activity Impairment in the Dry Eye Assessment and Management Study

Dry Eye Assessment and Management Study Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the association of dry eye disease (DED) severity with work productivity and activity impairment. Design: Longitudinal, observational study within a randomized clinical trial. Participants: People with moderate to severe DED who enrolled in the multicenter Dry Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM) study. Methods: Participants completed the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire at 0, 6, and 12 months and were assessed in parallel for symptoms and signs (conjunctival and corneal staining, tear film break-up time [TBUT], and Schirmer test) of DED. Associations of work productivity and activity impairment with symptom and signs were evaluated with linear regression models using generalized estimating equations and controlling for demographics and comorbidities. Main Outcome Measures: Work productivity (employment, absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment) and activity impairment. Results: Among 535 participants at baseline, 279 (52%) were employed, and mean activity impairment was 24.5%. Among those employed, the mean score was 2% for absenteeism, 18% for presenteeism, and 19.6% for overall work impairment. Higher Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) symptom scores were associated with greater absenteeism, presenteeism, and activity impairment. Overall work impairment and activity impairment were greater by 4.3% and 4.8%, respectively, per 10-unit difference in OSDI score (P < 0.001). Longitudinal increases (worsening) in OSDI scores were associated with increasing impairment in work and non–work-related activity: 2.0% and 3.1% per 10 units in OSDI, respectively (P < 0.01). Worse corneal staining and TBUT were associated with higher overall work impairment and activity level (P ≤ 0.04). However, longitudinal changes in these two signs were not associated with changes in work productivity or activity impairment. Conclusions: Worse symptoms of DED are associated with decreased work productivity and activity level, both cross-sectionally (interindividually) and longitudinally within person (intraindividually). Corneal staining and TBUT are associated with interindividual differences but not intraindividual changes in work productivity and activity impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)850-856
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmology
Volume128
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2021

Keywords

  • Dry eye disease
  • Economic impact
  • Work productivity

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