Association of health insurance status with coronary risk factors, coronary artery disease, interventions and outcomes in India

Rajeev Gupta, Jitender S. Makkar, Sanjeev K. Sharma, Ansh Agarwal, Krishna K. Sharma, Ajeet Bana, Atul Kasliwal, Sanjeev K. Sidana, Prem Ratan Degawat, Kush K. Bhagat, Vishnu Natani, Raghubir S. Khedar, Samin K. Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) related hospitalization and interventions are associated with catastrophic out-of-pocket health expenditure in India. To evaluate differences in risk factors, disease severity, management and outcomes in uninsured vs insured CAD patients we performed a study. Methods: Successive CAD patients who underwent percutaneous intervention (PCI) at our centre were enrolled from January 2018 to June 2021. Clinical, angiographic and intervention data were periodically uploaded in the American College of Cardiology CathPCI platform. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: 4672 CAD patients (men 3736, women 936) were included; uninsured were 2166 (46%), government insurance was in 1635 (36%) and private insurance in 871 (18%). Mean age was 60.1 ± 11 years, uninsured <50y were 21.6% vs 14.0% and 20.3% with government and private insurance. Among the uninsured prevalence of raised total and non-HDL cholesterol, any tobacco use, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and ejection fraction <30% were more (p < 0.01). In the STEMI group (n = 1985), rates of primary PCI were the highest in those with private insurance (38.7%) compared to others. Multivessel stenting (≥2 stents) was more among the insured patients. Median length of hospital stay was similar in the three groups. In-hospital mortality was slightly more in the uninsured (1.43%), compared to government (0.88) and privately insured (0.82) (p = 0.242). The cost of hospitalization and procedures was the highest among uninsured (US$ 2240, IQR 1877–2783) compared to government (US$ 1977, IQR 1653–2437) and privately insured (US$ 2013, IQR 1668–2633) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Uninsured CAD patients in India are younger with more risk factors, acute coronary syndrome, STEMI, multivessel disease and coronary stenting compared to those with government or private insurance. The uninsured bear significantly greater direct costs with slightly greater mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number200146
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • Coronary heart disease
  • Coronary interventions
  • Epidemiology
  • Health insurance
  • Social determinants of health


Dive into the research topics of 'Association of health insurance status with coronary risk factors, coronary artery disease, interventions and outcomes in India'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this