Association of Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

Chayakrit Krittanawong, Neil Sagar Maitra, Yusuf Kamran Qadeer, Zhen Wang, Sonya Fogg, Eric A. Storch, Christopher M. Celano, Jeff C. Huffman, Manish Jha, Dennis S. Charney, Carl J. Lavie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading worldwide cause of mortality. There has been increased awareness of the impact of psychological health on cardiovascular disease. In particular, major depression has been linked to increased all-cause mortality, development of cardiovascular disease, and worse outcomes in those with existing cardiovascular disease. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis assessing the incidence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease outcomes among those with major depressive disorder. Results: Among 26 studies of 1,957,621 individuals, depression was associated with increased risk of incident stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.28), myocardial infarction (HR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.45), congestive heart failure (HR 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09), or any cardiovascular disease (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.30). Depression was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.27-1.60), cardiovascular disease mortality (HR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27-1.63), and congestive heart failure mortality (HR 3.20; 95% CI, 1.29-7.94). Conclusion: Depression has a significant negative impact on development of cardiovascular disease and on cardiovascular disease outcomes. Further efforts to understand and mitigate these impacts are prudent.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • CVD
  • Depression
  • Mortality


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