Objective To study the association of dementia with apolipoprotein E-e4 (APOE-e4) and its interaction with age in a nonagenarian Costa Rican group (N-sample) and a general elderly contrast group (GE-sample). Methods In both case-control studies, participants were cognitively intact or diagnosed with dementia. The N-sample (N = 112) was at least age 90 years; the GE-sample (N = 98) was at least age 65 years. Results Dementia and APOE-e4 were not significantly associated in the N-sample, but were in the GE-sample. There was a significant interaction of age with APOE-e4 in the N-sample, but not in the GE-sample. Descriptively dividing the N-sample at the median (age 93 years) showed a group interaction: APOE-e4 was more associated with dementia in the younger N-sample than in the older N-sample, where six of seven APOE-e4 carriers were cognitively intact. Conclusions The results support the reduction in association of APOE-e4 with dementia in extreme old age, consistent with a survivor effect model for successful cognitive aging.
- Successful cognitive aging oldest-old dementia risk factors