We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) levels are associated with long-term trajectories of functional status independently of vascular risk factors and the occurrence of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) during follow-up. In the Northern Manhattan Study, stroke-free persons aged .40 years in northern Manhattan (New York, New York) had annual assessments with the Barthel index (BI) for a median of 13 years (1993-2015). Assessment of baseline demographic factors, risk factors, and laboratory studies included measurement of TNFR1 (n = 1,863). Generalized estimating equations models were used to estimate standardized associations between TNFR1 and 1) baseline functional status and 2) change in function over time, adjusting for demographic factors, vascular risk factors, social variables, cognition, and depression, as well as stroke and MI occurrence during follow-up. The mean age of participants was 70 (standard deviation (SD), 10) years; 66% were women, and 55% were Hispanic. The mean TNFR1 level was 2.57 mg/L. TNFR1 was associated with baseline BI (-0.93 BI points per SD increment in TNFR1; 95% confidence interval:-1.59,-0.26) and change over time (.0.36 BI points per year per SD increment in TNFR1; 95% confidence interval:-0.69,-0.03). In this large population-based study, higher TNFR1 levels were associated with greater baseline disability and disability over time, even with adjustment for baseline covariates and stroke and MI occurrence during follow-up.
- functional status
- tumor necrosis factor receptor 1