Association Between Race, Gender, and Pediatric Postoperative Outcomes: An Updated Retrospective Review

Jordan E. Jackson, Ganesh Rajasekar, Olivia Vukcevich, Brian A. Coakley, Miriam Nuño, Payam Saadai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: There has not been a recent evaluation of the association between racial and gender and surgical outcomes in children. We aimed to evaluate improvements in race- and gender-related pediatric postoperative outcomes since a report utilizing the Kids’ Inpatient Database data from 2003 to 2006. Methods: Using Kids’ Inpatient Database (2009, 2012, 2016), we identified 245,976 pediatric patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis (93.6%), pyloromyotomy for pyloric stenosis (2.7%), empyema decortication (1.6%), congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair (0.7%), small bowel resection for intussusception (0.5%), or colonic resection for Hirschsprung disease (0.2%). The primary outcome was the development of postoperative complications. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate risk-adjusted associations among race, gender, income, and postoperative complications. Results: Most patients were male (61.5%) and 45.7% were White. Postoperative complications were significantly associated with male gender (P < 0.0001) and race (P < 0.0001). After adjustment, Black patients were more likely to experience any complication than White patients (adjusted odds ratio 1.3, confidence interval 1.2-1.4), and males were more likely than females (adjusted odds ratio 1.3, confidence interval 1.2-1.4). Conclusions: No clear progress has been made in eliminating race- or gender-based disparities in pediatric postoperative outcomes. New strategies are needed to better understand and address these disparities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-121
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Gender
  • Postoperative morbidity
  • Race


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