Purpose: To evaluate associations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY 3–36 (PYY3-36) with weight change after bariatric arterial embolization (BAE). Materials and Methods: Subgroup analysis of data collected during the BEAT Obesity Trial involving 7 participants with BMI > 40 who were embolized with 300- to 500-μm Embosphere Microspheres. Three participants were characterized as “responders” (top tertile of weight loss at each visit) and 4 as “non-responders” (bottom tertile of weight loss at each visit). Mean ± standard deviation participant age was 44 ± 11 years, and 6 of 7 participants were women. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after BAE. After fasting, participants consumed a mixed meal test at each visit; blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min. Study outcome measures were changes in weight from baseline and plasma serum hormone levels. Results: Percentage change in ghrelin decreased significantly in non-responders at 60 and 120 min at 1 and 12 months (estimated difference between 60 vs. 0 min at 1 month: 69% [95% CI − 126%, − 13%]; estimated difference between 120 vs. 0 min at 12 months: − 131% (95% CI − 239%, − 23%]). Responders had significantly lower ghrelin and greater weight loss than non-responders at 6 and 12 months. GLP-1 and PYY3-36 levels did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Participants with consistent weight loss throughout follow-up had lower ghrelin than non-responders, supporting decreased ghrelin as a mechanism underlying BAE-induced weight loss. Level of Evidence I: High-quality randomized trial or prospective study; testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients; sensible costs and alternatives; values obtained from many studies with multiway sensitivity analyses; systematic review of Level I RCTs and Level I studies.
- Gut hormones
- Left gastric artery