Association Between Documented Severe Pain and Cognitive Impairment in Home Health Care Patients: Results from the National Outcome and Assessment Information Set Data

Zainab Toteh Osakwe, Rose Calixte, Omonigho Michael Bubu, Jennifer M. Reckrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Despite the growing importance of home health care (HHC) in the care of older adults with cognitive impairment, limited evidence exists about factors associated with documented severe pain among older adults receiving HHC. Methods: This secondary data analysis used a 5% random national sample of the 2017 national Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) data. Multivariable Poisson regression model was used to examine the association between documented severe pain, cognitive impairment, and a range of sociodemographic, clinical, and cognitive factors. Results: HHC patients (n = 183,038) were mean age 79.7 years, 61.7% female, and 78.6% non-Hispanic White. In multivariable models, cognitive impairment was associated with lower likelihood of documented severe pain (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = [0.94-0.98]). Other factors independently associated with less documented severe pain included Hispanic ethnicity (PR = 0.92, CI = [0.89-0.95]), the oldest (≥85 years) groups (PR = 0.65, CI = [0.63-0.66]), male patients (PR = 0.83, CI = [0.82-0.85]), those with a formal diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Related Dementias (PR = 0.67, CI = [0.65-0.69]), and patients with verbaland speech-related difficulty (PR = 0.83, CI = [0.80-0.86]). Patients with history of falls (PR = 1.18, CI = [1.16- 1.20]), positive screen on the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PR = 1.36, CI = [1.31-1.41]), shortness of breath (PR = 1.14, CI = [1.12-1.14]), anxiety daily (PR = 1.16, CI = [1.14-1.18]), and anxiety daily or more often (PR = 1.40, CI = [1.37-1.43]) were more likely to have documented severe pain. Conclusions: HHC patients with cognitive impairment were less likely to have documented severe pain even with a range of sociodemographic, clinical, functional, and cognitive characteristics were considered. These findings may reflect a link between cognitive impairment missed opportunities for clinicians to provide pain management. Tailored interventions are needed to better assess and manage pain in this vulnerable group of HHC patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1662-1670
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Palliative Medicine
Volume26
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Outcome and Assessment Information Set
  • cognitive impairment
  • home health care
  • pain
  • palliative care

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