Association between cognitive function and large optic nerve cupping, accounting for cup-disc-ratio genetic risk score

Sasha Kravets, Rawan Allozi Rupnow, Abhishek Sethi, Mark A. Espeland, Louis R. Pasquale, Stephen R. Rapp, Barbara E. Klein, Stacy M. Meuer, Mary N. Haan, Pauline M. Maki, Joelle A. Hallak, Thasarat Sutabutr Vajaranant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose To investigate if accounting for a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) genetic risk score (GRS) modified the association between large CDR and cognitive function among women. Design This was a retrospective study using data from the Women’s Health Initiative. Methods Patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were excluded. Large CDR was defined as ≥ 0.6 in either eye. Cognitive function was measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE). We used the combined effects from 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to formulate the GRS for CDR. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between weighted GRS and large CDR, then a linear regression to assess the association between weighted GRS and 3MSE scores, and between weighted GRS, CDR, and 3MSE scores, adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Final analyses included 1,196 White women with mean age of 69.60 ± 3.62 years and 7.27% with large CDR. Mean GRS in women with and without large CDR was 1.51 ± 0.31 vs. 1.41 ± 0.36, respectively (p = 0.004). The odds of large CDR for a one unit increase in GRS was 2.30 (95% CI: (1.22, 4.36), p = 0.011). Adding the CDR GRS in the model with CDR and 3MSE, women with large CDR still had statistically significantly lower 3MSE scores than those without large CDR, yielding a predicted mean difference in 3MSE scores of 0.84 (p = 0.007). Conclusions Independent of the CDR GRS, women with large CDR had a lower cognitive function.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0258564
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number10 October
StatePublished - Oct 2022


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