Background Fluid management during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) requires accuracy in the prescription of desired patient fluid balance (FBGoal) and precision in the attainable patient fluid balance (FBAchieved). Herein, we examined the association of the gap between prescribed vs. achieved patient fluid balance during CRRT (%FBGap) with hospital mortality in critically ill patients. Methods Cohort study of critically ill adults with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring CRRT and a prescription of negative fluid balance (mean patient fluid balance goal of negative ≥0.5 liters per day). Fluid management parameters included: 1) NUF (net ultrafiltration rate); 2) FBGoal; 3) FBAchieved; and 4) FBGap (%gap of fluid balance achieved vs. goal), all adjusted by patient's weight (kg) and duration of CRRT (hours). Results Data from 653 patients (median of 102.2 patient-hours of CRRT) were analyzed. Mean (SD) age was 56.7 (14.6) years and 61.9% were male. Hospital mortality rate was 64%. Despite FBGoal was similar in patients who died vs. survived, survivors achieved greater negative fluid balance during CRRT than non-survivors: median FBAchieved -0.25 [-0.52 to -0.05] vs. 0.06 [-0.26 to 0.62] ml/kg/h, p<0.001. Median NUF was lower in patients who died vs. survived: 1.06 [0.63-1.47] vs. 1.22 [0.82-1.69] ml/kg/h, p<0.001, and median %FBGap was higher in patients who died (112.8%, 61.5 to 165.7) vs. survived (64.2%, 30.5 to 91.8), p<0.001. In multivariable models, higher %FBGap was independently associated with increased risk of hospital mortality: aOR (95% CI) 1.01 (1.01-1.02), p<0.001. NUF was not associated with hospital mortality when adjusted by %FBGap and other clinical parameters: aOR 0.96 (0.72-1.28), p = 0.771. Conclusions Higher %FBGap was independently associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality in critically ill adults with AKI on CRRT in whom clinicians prescribed negative fluid balance via CRRT. %FBGap represents a novel quality indicator of CRRT delivery that could assist with operationalizing fluid management interventions during CRRT.