Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease with Computed Tomography Angiography and Inflammatory and Immune Activation Biomarkers among Adults with HIV Eligible for Primary Cardiovascular Prevention

Udo Hoffmann, Michael T. Lu, Borek Foldyna, Markella V. Zanni, Julia Karady, Jana Taron, Bingxue K. Zhai, Tricia Burdo, Kathleen V. Fitch, Emma M. Kileel, Kenneth Williams, Carl J. Fichtenbaum, Edgar T. Overton, Carlos Malvestutto, Judith Aberg, Judith Currier, Craig A. Sponseller, Kathleen Melbourne, Michelle Floris-Moore, Cornelius Van DamMichael C. Keefer, Susan L. Koletar, Pamela S. Douglas, Heather Ribaudo, Thomas Mayrhofer, Steven K. Grinspoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations

Abstract

IMPORTANCE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased among people with HIV (PWH), but little is known regarding the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and associated biological factors in PWH with low to moderate traditional CVD risk. OBJECTIVES To determine unique factors associated with CVD in PWH and to assess CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and critical pathways of arterial inflammation and immune activation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cohort study among male and female PWH, aged 40 to 75 years, without known CVD, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, and with low to moderate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equation, was part of the Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE), a large, ongoing primary prevention trial of statin therapy among PWHconducted at 31 US sites. Participants were enrolled from May 2015 to February 2018. Data analysis was conducted from May to December 2020. EXPOSURE HIV disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the prevalence and composition of CAD assessed by coronary CTA and, secondarily, the association of CAD with traditional risk indices and circulating biomarkers, including insulin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL) 6, soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, lipoprotein-Associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). RESULTS The sample included 755 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 51 (6) years, 124 (16%) female participants, 267 (35%) Black or African American participants, 182 (24%) Latinx participants, a low median (interquartile range) ASCVD risk (4.5%[2.6%-6.8%]), and well-controlled viremia. Overall, plaque was seen in 368 participants (49%), including among 52 of 175 participants (30%) with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk of less than 2.5%. Luminal obstruction of at least 50% was rare (25 [3%]), but vulnerable plaque and high Leaman score (ie, >5) were more frequently observed (172 of 755 [23%] and 118 of 743 [16%], respectively). Overall, 251 of 718 participants (35%) demonstrated coronary artery calcium score scores greater than 0. IL-6, LpPLA2, oxLDL, and MCP-1 levels were higher in those with plaque compared with those without (eg, median [IQR] IL-6 level, 1.71 [1.05-3.04] pg/mL vs 1.45 [0.96-2.60] pg/mL; P = .008). LpPLA2 and IL-6 levels were associated with plaque in adjusted modeling, independent of traditional risk indices and HIV parameters (eg, IL-6: Adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95%CI, 1.02-1.12; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this study of a large primary prevention cohort of individuals with well-controlled HIV and low to moderate ASCVD risk, CAD, including noncalcified, nonobstructive, and vulnerable plaque, was highly prevalent. Participants with plaque demonstrated higher levels of immune activation and arterial inflammation, independent of traditional ASCVD risk and HIV parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e2114923
JournalJAMA network open
Volume4
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 29 Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes

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