Given recent downward trends in daily rates of COVID-19 vaccinations, it is important to reassess strategies to reach those most vulnerable. The success and efficacy of vaccination campaigns for other respiratory illnesses, such as influenza, may help inform messaging around COVID-19 vaccinations. This cross-sectional study examines the individual-level factors associated with, and the spatial distribution of, predictors of COVID-19 severity, and uptake of influenza and hepatitis B (as a negative control) vaccines across NYC. Data were obtained from the 2018 Community Health Survey (CHS), including self-reported influenza and hepatitis B vaccine uptake, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, borough, and United Hospital Fund (UHF) neighborhood of residence. A CDC-defined COVID-19 severity risk score was created with variables available in the CHS, including diabetes, asthma, hypertension, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, and age ≥65 years old. After adjustment, there was a significant positive association between COVID-19 severity risk score and influenza vaccine uptake (1: ORadj = 1.49, 95% CI 1.28–1.73; 2: ORadj = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.65–2.41; 3+: ORadj = 2.89; 95% CI: 2.32–3.60, compared to 0). Hepatitis B vaccine uptake was significantly inversely associated with COVID-19 severity risk score (1: ORadj = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.57–0.79; 2: ORadj = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.44–0.66; 3+: ORadj = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.36–0.56, compared to 0). The influenza vaccination campaign template is effective at reaching those most at risk for serious COVID-19 and, if implemented, may help reach the most vulnerable that have not yet been vaccinated against COVID-19.