Artificial intelligence for detection of effusion and lipo-hemarthrosis in X-rays and CT of the knee

Israel Cohen, Vera Sorin, Ruth Lekach, Daniel Raskin, Maria Segev, Eyal Klang, Iris Eshed, Yiftach Barash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Traumatic knee injuries are challenging to diagnose accurately through radiography and to a lesser extent, through CT, with fractures sometimes overlooked. Ancillary signs like joint effusion or lipo-hemarthrosis are indicative of fractures, suggesting the need for further imaging. Artificial Intelligence (AI) can automate image analysis, improving diagnostic accuracy and help prioritizing clinically important X-ray or CT studies. Objective: To develop and evaluate an AI algorithm for detecting effusion of any kind in knee X-rays and selected CT images and distinguishing between simple effusion and lipo-hemarthrosis indicative of intra-articular fractures. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed post traumatic knee imaging from January 2016 to February 2023, categorizing images into lipo-hemarthrosis, simple effusion, or normal. It utilized the FishNet-150 algorithm for image classification, with class activation maps highlighting decision-influential regions. The AI's diagnostic accuracy was validated against a gold standard, based on the evaluations made by a radiologist with at least four years of experience. Results: Analysis included CT images from 515 patients and X-rays from 637 post traumatic patients, identifying lipo-hemarthrosis, simple effusion, and normal findings. The AI showed an AUC of 0.81 for detecting any effusion, 0.78 for simple effusion, and 0.83 for lipo-hemarthrosis in X-rays; and 0.89, 0.89, and 0.91, respectively, in CTs. Conclusion: The AI algorithm effectively detects knee effusion and differentiates between simple effusion and lipo-hemarthrosis in post-traumatic patients for both X-rays and selected CT images further studies are needed to validate these results.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111460
JournalEuropean Journal of Radiology
StatePublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Knee effusion
  • Knee trauma
  • Lipo-hemarthrosis
  • Machine learning


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