Applying an Expanded Set of Cognitive Design Principles to Formatting the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) Longitudinal Survey

José Luis Calderón, Erik Fleming, Monica R. Gannon, Shu Cheng Chen, Joseph A. Vassalotti, Keith C. Norris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) is a free community-based health-screening program targeting populations at greatest risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), those with high rates of diabetes and hypertension, and a high proportion of racial/ethnic minorities. The KEEP Longitudinal Survey will adopt methods similar to those used in KEEP to gather follow-up data to measure CKD-related heath status and gauge program effectiveness for repeated KEEP participants with evidence of CKD stages 3 to 5. KEEP has defined objectives to enhance follow-up survey response rates and target vulnerable populations who bear the greatest CKD risk-factor burdens. Methods: The KEEP Follow-up Form was assessed for adherence to 6 cognitive design principles (simplicity, consistency, organization, natural order, clarity, and attractiveness) considered to summate the techniques guiding good survey development and for the additional cognitive design principles of readability and variation of readability across survey items. Results: The KEEP Follow-up Form was found to include violations of each cognitive design principle and readability principle, possibly contributing to item nonresponse and low follow-up rates in KEEP. It was revised according to empirically substantiated formatting techniques guided by these principles and found during qualitative assessment to be more user friendly, simpler, better organized, more attractive, and easier to read. Subsequent development of the KEEP Longitudinal Survey form also was guided by these principles. Conclusion: To ensure ease of use by populations with limited literacy skills, poor health literacy, and limited survey literacy, survey researchers must apply cognitive design principles to survey development to improve participation and response rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S83-S92
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number4 SUPPL. 2
StatePublished - Apr 2008


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • cognitive design principles
  • readability
  • survey format
  • survey methods


Dive into the research topics of 'Applying an Expanded Set of Cognitive Design Principles to Formatting the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) Longitudinal Survey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this