Apoptosis and other immune biomarkers predict influenza vaccine responsiveness

David Furman, Vladimir Jojic, Brian Kidd, Shai Shen-Orr, Jordan Price, Justin Jarrell, Tiffany Tse, Huang Huang, Peder Lund, Holden T. Maecker, Paul J. Utz, Cornelia L. Dekker, Daphne Koller, Mark M. Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


Despite the importance of the immune system in many diseases, there are currently no objective benchmarks of immunological health. In an effort to identifying such markers, we used influenza vaccination in 30 young (20-30 years) and 59 older subjects (60 to >89 years) as models for strong and weak immune responses, respectively, and assayed their serological responses to influenza strains as well as a wide variety of other parameters, including gene expression, antibodies to hemagglutinin peptides, serum cytokines, cell subset phenotypes and in vitro cytokine stimulation. Using machine learning, we identified nine variables that predict the antibody response with 84% accuracy. Two of these variables are involved in apoptosis, which positively associated with the response to vaccination and was confirmed to be a contributor to vaccine responsiveness in mice. The identification of these biomarkers provides new insights into what immune features may be most important for immune health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number659
JournalMolecular Systems Biology
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • aging
  • apoptosis
  • influenza
  • systems immunology
  • vaccinology


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