Circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are the central pathogenic mechanism for a group of systemic and renal syndromes called the ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). The nomenclature has changed from eponymous labeling to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and microscopic polyangiitis. These syndromes predominantly affect the pulmonary and renal systems. We also review the molecular pathology behind ANCAs and associated antigens and infections. Various clinical presentations, the multiple target organs affected, and diagnostic challenges involved in identifying these diseases are discussed. Treatment updates are also provided with regard to new studies and the now standard use of anti-CD-20 monoclonal antibodies as first-line therapy in all but the most aggressive presentations of this disease. Maintenance regimens and monitoring strategies for relapse of vasculitis and associated systemic complications are discussed.
|Number of pages
|International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
|Published - 2018
- ANCA associated vasculitis