Type C RNA viruses initially isolated from a lymphosarcoma of a gibbon ape and from a fibrosarcoma of a woolly monkey are very closely related immunologically. However, recent studies have shown that these viruses are distinguishable in a radioimmunoassay for the 12,000 molecular weight polypeptide (p12) of the woolly monkey virus. In the present report, an immunoassay has been developed for the p12 polypeptide of the gibbon ape type C virus. This assay is shown to further distinguish the woolly monkey and gibbon ape viruses. In type specific assays for the p12 polypeptides of these viruses, two new type C viruses isolated from gibbons in a second colony, characterized by high incidence of hemopoietic neoplasia, are immunologically distinguishable from the original gibbon ape virus. The p12 type specific immunoassays described in the present report may be of importance in studying the natural history of these viruses and their relationship to tumors of primates.