Antibody responses to influenza A(H1N1)pdm infection

Steph Wraith, Raffael Nachbagauer, Angel Balmaseda, Daniel Stadlbauer, Sergio Ojeda, Arvind Rajabhathor, Roger Lopez, Andrea F. Guglia, Nery Sanchez, Fatima Amanat, Lionel Gresh, Guillermina Kuan, Florian Krammer, Aubree Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


We investigated humoral immune response to influenza A(H1N1)pdm infection and found 32 (22%) of the infected individuals identified by PCR failed to produce a ≥ 4-fold hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HAI) response; a subset of 18 (56%) produced an alternate antibody response (against full-length HA, HA stalk, or neuraminidase). These individuals had lower pre-existing HAI antibody titers and showed a pattern of milder illness. An additional subset of 14 (44%) did not produce an alternate antibody response, had higher pre-existing antibody titers against full-length & stalk HA, and were less sick. These findings demonstrate that some individuals mount an alternate antibody response to influenza infection. In order to design more broadly protective influenza vaccines it may be useful to target these alternate sites. These findings support that there are influenza cases currently being missed by solely implementing HAI assays, resulting in an underestimation of the global burden of influenza infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4221-4225
Number of pages5
Issue number27
StatePublished - 2 Jun 2020


  • Antibodies
  • Hemagglutination inhibition
  • Influenza
  • Neuraminidase


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