Antibiotic treatment failure and associated outcomes among adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the outpatient setting: A real-world US insurance claims database study

Glenn Tillotson, Thomas Lodise, Peter Classi, Donna Mildvan, James A. McKinnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Antibiotic treatment failure is common among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are managed in the outpatient setting and is associated with higher mortality and increased health care costs. This study’s objectives were to quantify the occurrence of antibiotic treatment failure (ATF) and to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes between CAP patients who experienced ATF relative to those who did not. Methods. Retrospective analysis of the MarketScan Commercial & Medicare Supplemental Databases was performed, identifying patients ≥18 years old, with a pneumonia diagnosis in the outpatient setting, and who received a fluoroquinolone, macrolides, betalactam, or tetracycline. ATF was defined as any of the following events within 30 days of initial antibiotic: antibiotic refill, antibiotic switch, emergency room visit, or hospitalization. Outcomes included 30-day all-cause mortality and CAP-related health care costs. Results. During the study period, 251 947 unique patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 52.2 years, and 47.7% were male. The majority of patients received a fluoroquinolone (44.4%) or macrolide (43.6%). Overall, 22.1% were classified as ATFs. Among 18–64-year-old patients, 21.2% experienced treatment failure, compared with 25.7% in those >65 years old. All-cause mortality was greater in the antibiotic failure group relative to the non–antibiotic failure group (18.1% vs 4.6%, respectively), and the differences in 30-day mortality between antibiotic failure groups increased as a function of age. Mean 30-day CAP-related health care costs were also higher in the patients who experienced treatment failure relative to those who did not ($2140 vs $54, respectively). Conclusions. Treatment failure and poor outcomes from outpatient CAP are common with current guideline-concordant CAP therapies. Improvements in clinical management programs and therapeutic options are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofaa065
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020

Keywords

  • Antibiotic treatment failure
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Outpatient

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