Anti-Xa testing for pediatric and neonatal patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

Noy Meshulami, Robert Green, Shubhi Kaushik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: To determine if anti-Xa testing is associated with improved outcomes for patients <19-years-old on ECMO. Methods: We evaluated the clinical benefit of anti-Xa heparin monitoring utilizing the Bleeding and Thrombosis during ECMO (BATE) database of 514 patients <19-years-old. The BATE database includes incidences of bleeding, thrombosis, and mortality. The database also describes anti-coagulation test utilization. We grouped and analyzed patients based on ECMO indication (cardiac, respiratory, or extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation [E-CPR]) and age (neonatal vs pediatric). We constructed multivariable logistic regression models to analyze the impact of anti-Xa testing on mortality, bleeding, and thrombosis in each group. Results: Across the entire population, anti-Xa testing did not have a significant effect on the incidence of mortality (43% with anti-Xa testing vs 49% without), bleeding (68% vs 74%), or thrombosis (37% vs 39%). However, among cardiac indicated patients on ECMO (n = 207), anti-Xa testing was significantly associated with reduced odds ratio (OR) of mortality (adjusted OR 0.527, p =.040) and bleeding (adjusted OR 0.369, p =.021). In addition, among neonatal patients on ECMO (n = 264), anti-Xa testing was associated with a significant reduction in the odds ratio of bleeding (adjusted OR 0.534, p =.046). Conclusion: Anti-Xa testing is associated with improved outcomes among cardiac indicated and neonatal patients on ECMO. Additional research to find the optimal heparin monitoring regimen is needed to better support these critically ill patients. In the interim, we recommend clinicians consider utilizing anti-Xa assays as part of their heparin monitoring plan for neonatal and cardiac indicated patients on ECMO.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPerfusion (United Kingdom)
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • ECMO
  • NICU
  • PICU
  • anticoagulation
  • cardiac ICU
  • cardiac and circulatory failure


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