Antegrade fenestration and re-entry: A new controlled subintimal technique for chronic total occlusion recanalization

Mauro Carlino, Lorenzo Azzalini, Satoru Mitomo, Antonio Colombo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Objectives: To describe and evaluate the efficacy of a novel antegrade dissection/re-entry (ADR) technique, called antegrade fenestration and re-entry (AFR), for chronic total occlusions (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background: The widespread adoption of ADR is limited by several technical, logistic, and financial factors. Therefore, novel ADR techniques are needed. Methods: AFR consists in creating multiple fenestrations of the dissection flap separating the false and true lumen. This is achieved by advancing a balloon (sized 1:1 with the artery diameter) onto the antegrade wire into the subintimal space, and inflating it at the level of the distal cap. A soft polymer-jacketed guidewire is then advanced across the fenestrations created by balloon inflation from the subintimal space into the true lumen. Following its theoretical formulation, patients undergoing ADR-based CTO recanalization at our institution were considered for AFR treatment. Results: Between November 2015 and October 2017, 279 CTO PCIs were performed. Of those, ADR was utilized in 33 (12%) cases, of whom AFR was used in 6 (18%). In all but one cases, AFR was performed after failed true-to-true lumen crossing, while in the remainder it was utilized after extensive subintimal space disruption following alternative ADR techniques. AFR was successful in all six cases and no complications were observed. Conclusions: We have developed a novel ADR technique which aims at complementing the CTO operator's armamentarium. AFR does not preclude alternative bailout techniques, and is inexpensive and easy to perform. A dedicated study should confirm our findings in a large cohort.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-504
Number of pages8
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • antegrade
  • chronic total occlusion
  • dissection
  • percutaneous coronary intervention
  • re-entry
  • subintimal


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