Anogenital distance: A marker of steroidal endocrine disruption

Shanna H. Swan, David M. Kristensen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the anus to the genitals, is easily and reliably measured. It is 50%-100% longer at birth in males than females of most mammalian species. In rodents and humans, shorter male AGD is associated with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, reduced sperm count and infertility. AGD is under hormonal influence during fetal development and has long been used as an early marker of reproductive toxicity. Consistent with animal studies, multiple human studies have demonstrated a shorter AGD in males exposed to environmental anti-androgens. For these reasons, AGD has become a uniquely valuable metric in endocrine disruptor research.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Reproduction
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780128151457
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018


  • Anogenital distance (AGD)
  • Anti-androgen
  • Endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC)
  • Male programming window (MPW)


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