Angiographic patterns of in-stent restenosis: Classification and implications for long-term outcome

Roxana Mehran, George Dangas, Andrea S. Abizaid, Gary S. Mintz, Alexandra J. Lansky, Lowell F. Satler, Augusto D. Pichard, Kenneth M. Kent, Gregg W. Stone, Martin B. Leon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1194 Scopus citations


Background - The angiographic presentation of in-stent restenosis (ISR) may convey prognostic information on subsequent target vessel revascularizations (TLR). Methods and Results - We developed an angiographic classification of ISR according to the geographic distribution of intimal hyperplasia in reference to the implanted stent. Pattern I includes focal (≤ 10 mm in length) lesions, pattern II is ISR> 10 mm within the stent, pattern III includes ISR> 10 mm extending outside the stent, and pattern IV is totally occluded ISR. We classified a total of 288 ISR lesions in 245 patients and verified the angiographic accuracy of the classification by intravascular ultrasound. Pattern I was found in 42% of patients, pattern II in 21%, pattern III in 30%, and pattern IV in 7%. Previously recurrent ISR was more frequent with increasing grades of classification (9%, 20%, 34%, and 50% for classes I to IV, respectively; P=0.0001), as was diabetes (28%, 32%, 39%, and 48% in classes I to IV, respectively; P<0.01). Angioplasty and stenting were used predominantly in classes I and II, whereas classes III and IV were treated with atheroablation. Final diameter stenosis ranged between 21% and 28% (P=NS among ISR patterns). TLR increased with increasing ISR class; it was 19%, 35%, 50%, and 83% in classes I to IV, respectively (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes (odds ratio, 2.8), previously recurrent ISR (odds ratio, 2.7), and ISR class (odds ratio, 1.7) were independent predictors of TLR. Conclusions - The introduced angiographic classification is prognostically important, and it may be used for appropriate and early patient triage for clinical and investigational purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1872-1878
Number of pages7
Issue number18
StatePublished - 2 Nov 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiography
  • Angioplasty
  • Restenosis
  • Stents


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