Anatomical observations of the caudal vestibulo-sympathetic pathway

Gay R. Holstein, Giorgio P. Martinelli, Victor L. Friedrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The vestibular system senses the movement and position of the head in space and uses this information to stabilize vision, control posture, perceive head orientation and self-motion in three-dimensional space, and modulate autonomic and limbic activity in response to locomotion and changes in posture. Most vestibular signals are not consciously perceived and are usually appreciated through effector pathways classically described as the vestibulo-ocular, vestibulo-spinal, vestibulo-collic and vestibulo-autonomic reflexes. The present study reviews some of the recent data concerning the connectivity and chemical anatomy of vestibular projections to autonomic sites that are important in the sympathetic control of blood pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-62
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2011


  • Vestibular nuclei
  • vestibulo-autonomic control
  • vestibulo-sympathetic pathways
  • vestibulo-sympathetic reflex


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