Study Objective: To assess the effect of laparoscopic surgery on the survival of women with early-stage endometrial cancer and to analyze the factors that affect survival. Design: Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Setting: Tertiary teaching hospital. Patients: Women with clinical stage I and II endometrial cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging, 1971) from January 1993 through June 2003. Intervention: Demographic, surgical, perioperative, and pathologic characteristics of women treated with laparoscopy or laparotomy were compared by use of Fisher's exact test or the Student t test. Recurrence-free and overall survival was calculated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified analyses were performed with the log-rank test for factors affecting survival (surgical stage, histologic study, and grade). Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-seven and 127 women were treated with laparoscopy and laparotomy, respectively. Median follow-up was 36.3 months for the laparoscopy group and 29.6 months for the laparotomy group. The complication rates in the 2 groups were comparable. Women undergoing laparoscopy had shorter hospital stay and less morbidity related to infection. The 2- and 5-year estimated recurrence-free survival rates for the laparoscopy and laparotomy groups (93 % vs 91.7% and 88.5% vs 85%, respectively), as well as the overall 2- and 5-year survival rates (100% vs 99.2% and 100% vs 97%, respectively) were similar. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery in women with early-stage endometrial carcinoma resulted in survival rates similar to laparotomy, although a small sample size precludes definitive conclusions. A larger randomized comparison of the 2 techniques is needed to validate these findings.