Analysis of Local Control and Pain Control After Spine Stereotactic Radiosurgery Reveals Inferior Outcomes for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Compared With Other Radioresistant Histologies

Heather M. McGee, Todd J. Carpenter, Umut Ozbek, Katherine A. Kirkwood, Tzu Chi Tseng, Seth Blacksburg, Isabelle M. Germano, Sheryl Green, Michael Buckstein

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12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for spinal metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with other radioresistant histologies (renal cell carcinoma [RCC], melanoma, and sarcoma) in terms of local control (LC) and pain control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of patients treated with SRS to the spine for metastatic HCC, RCC, melanoma, and sarcoma between January 2007 and May 2014. Radiographic assessments of LC, overall survival, and patient-reported pain control were analyzed as univariable analyses and with various patient- and treatment-related parameters as multivariable analyses (MVA). Results: Of the 96 patients treated with SRS, 41 patients had radioresistant histologies, including 18 HCC, 1 mixed HCC and cholangiocarcinoma, 15 RCC, 6 melanoma, and 1 leiomyosarcoma. Extraosseous disease was present in 63% of patients (74% in HCC; 55% in non-HCC; P = not significant). Spinal cord compression was present in 29% of patients (32% in HCC; 27% in non-HCC; P = not significant), and 24% of patients had decompressive surgery before SRS (26% in HCC; 23% in non-HCC; P = not significant). With a median follow-up time of 8.7 months, the actuarial 3-, 6-, and 12-month LC rates were 71%, 61%, 41%, respectively, for HCC, and 94%, 94%, and 85%, respectively, for non-HCC. The median time to local failure was 3 months for HCC and 11 months for non-HCC. On MVA, there was a strong trend toward inferior LC with HCC (P =.059). Of the 28 patients with pretreatment pain, pain relief was achieved in 93% of patients, but the 2 patients who did not experience pain relief both had HCC. The actuarial 3-, 6-, and 12-month pain control rates were 68%, 51%, 17%, respectively, for HCC, and 100%, 89%, and 89%, respectively, for non-HCC (P =.023), and remained significant on MVA (P =.034). Conclusions: Compared with other radioresistant histologies, HCC has inferior LC and pain relief after SRS. Whether HCC may benefit from further dose escalation or combined treatment with new therapies is an area of future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-97
Number of pages9
JournalPractical Radiation Oncology
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2019

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