Analysis of Florida and New York state hospital discharges suggests that carotid stenting in symptomatic women is associated with significant increase in mortality and perioperative morbidity compared with carotid endarterectomy

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Abstract

Background: Although large randomized studies have established the efficacy and safety of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and, recently, carotid artery stenting (CAS), the under-representation of women in these trials leaves the comparison of risks to benefits of performing these procedures on women an open question. To address this issue, we reviewed the hospital outcomes and delineated patient characteristics predicting outcome in women undergoing carotid interventions using New York and Florida statewide hospital discharge databases. Methods: We analyzed in-hospital mortality, postoperative stroke, cardiac postoperative complications, and combined postoperative stoke and mortality in 20,613 CEA or CAS hospitalizations for the years 2007 to 2009. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses of variables were performed. Results: CEA was performed in 16,576 asymptomatic and 1744 symptomatic women and CAS in 1943 asymptomatic and 350 symptomatic women. Compared with CAS, CEA rates, in asymptomatic vs symptomatic, were significantly lower for in-hospital mortality (0.3% vs 0.8% and 0.4% vs 3.4%), stroke (1.5% vs 2.6% and 3.5% vs 9.4%), and combined stroke/mortality (1.7% vs 3.1% and 3.8% vs 10.9%). In cohorts matched by propensity scores, the same trend favoring CEA remained significant in symptomatic women. There was no difference in cardiac complication rates among asymptomatic women, but among symptomatic woman cardiac complications were more frequent after CAS (10.6% vs 6.5%; P =.0077). Among symptomatic women, the presence of renal disease, coronary artery disease, or age <80 years increased the risk of CAS over CEA threefold for the composite end point of stroke or death. For asymptomatic women only in those with coronary artery disease or diabetes, there was a statistical difference in the composite mortality/stroke rates favoring CEA (1.9% vs 3.3% and 1.7% vs 3.4%, respectively). After adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic risk factors and hospital annual volume, for CAS vs CEA, the risk of the composite end point of stroke or mortality was 1.7-fold higher in symptomatic and 3.4-fold higher in asymptomatic patients. Medicaid insurance, symptomatic patient, history of cancer, and presence of heart failure on admission were among other strong predictors of composite stroke/mortality outcome. Conclusions: Databases reflecting real-world practice performance and management of carotid disease in women suggest that CEA compared with CAS has overall better perioperative outcomes in women. Importantly, CAS is associated with significantly higher morbidity in certain clinical settings and this should be taken into account when choosing a revascularization procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-342.e2
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Volume56
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2012

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