Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

Yuxin Liu, Xiaofei Wang, Tamara Kalir, David Chhieng, Keith Sigel, Michael M. Gaisa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objectives: Anorectal cytology (ARC) is a widely used screening tool for anal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Its diagnostic accuracy needs to be improved, especially for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). Methods: Using 100 HIV MSM with biopsy-proven anal HSILs, we correlated histologic/cytologic findings. Results: Upon review, HSIL cells were present in 58 cytology samples and absent in 42. Positive samples were higher in cellularity and contained transformation zones (Pt.05). Cytology was able to predict HSILs in 36%, 48%, 68%, and 78% of patients with one, two, three, and four or more highgrade lesions. HSIL cells were identified in all cytology samples initially reported as HSILs or atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL and in 34 samples reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or less. Notably, among this last category, 15 (44%) were keratinized-type HSILs. Conclusions: Our findings should improve the ARC detection rate for anal HSILs, helping to implement ARC as the primary screening tool for anal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-321
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2017


  • Anorectal cytology
  • HIV-infected MSM
  • anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions


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