An intricate web: Chemokine receptors, HIV-1 and hematopoiesis

Benhur Lee, Benjamin J. Doranz, Mariusz Z. Ratajczak, Robert W. Doms

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cellular infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) requires interaction of the viral envelope protein with CD4 and at least one additional cell surface molecule, termed a 'cofactor' or 'coreceptor.' Recent discoveries have determined that macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 which are largely responsible for sexual transmission require the β-chemokine receptor CCR5 in addition to CD4, while the T cell tropic viruses that emerge later after infection use the α-chemokine receptor CXCR4. Thus, both CD4 and the appropriate chemokine receptor must be expressed on the cell surface in order for HIV-1 to enter the cell and establish an infection. The in vivo importance of CCR5 for HIV-1 is demonstrated by the finding that individuals homozygous for a 32 bp deletion (Δ32) in the CCR5 gene that renders them effectively CCR5-negative are highly resistant to virus infection. In this review, the structure-function correlates of the chemokine receptors that serve as major coreceptors for HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus entry will be reviewed. Since certain chemokines have been implicated as stem cell inhibitory factors, the biological consequences of chemokine receptor expression as it relates to HIV-1-associated hematodyspoiesis will also be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-88
Number of pages10
JournalStem Cells
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Chemokine receptors
  • Envelope
  • HIV
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Structure-function

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