An international study of post-COVID sleep health

Elisabet Alzueta, Paul B. Perrin, Dilara Yuksel, Daniela Ramos-Usuga, Orsolya Kiss, Stella Iacovides, Massimiliano de Zambotti, Mar Cortes, Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa, Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Fiona C. Baker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: COVID-19 has infected millions of people worldwide, with growing evidence that individuals with a history of infection may continue to show persistent post-COVID symptoms (long COVID). The aim of this study was to investigate sleep health in an international sample of individuals who reported previously testing positive for COVID-19. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Online survey distributed online between March and June 2021. Participants: A total of 1001 individuals who reported a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 across different geographical regions, including North and South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe. Measurements: Self-reported sleep health, using the Regulatory Satisfaction Alertness Timing Efficiency Duration scale, as recalled before a COVID-19 diagnosis and also reported currently. Results: Individuals reported worse overall current sleep health, with lower ratings across the 6 dimensions of sleep health (sleep regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration) compared to their ratings as recalled before COVID-19 infection. Greater severity of COVID-19 symptoms was the strongest predictor of poor current sleep health (P <.001), independent of demographics, presence of a pre-existing chronic health condition, and time since infection. Poor current sleep health was associated with poorer current quality of life (P <.001). Conclusions: Poor current sleep health is evident in individuals with a history of COVID-19, particularly those with more severe symptoms at the time of their COVID-19 infection and is associated with a poorer quality of life. Clinicians and researchers should assess sleep health in COVID-19 patients and investigate long-term associations with their mental and physical health, as well as potential benefits of improving sleep in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)684-690
Number of pages7
JournalSleep Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • COVID-19
  • General population
  • Long COVID
  • Quality of life
  • Sleep


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