An inertial sensor-based protocol for spinal range of motion measurements

P. J. Mulcahey, P. T. Knott, A. Madiraju, N. Haque, D. S. Haoson, W. P. Bassett, L. A. Cuddihy, M. D. Antonacci, R. R. Betz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


To develop a protocol for assessing spinal range of motion using an inertial sensor device. The baseline error of an inertial sensor was assessed using a bicycle wheel. Nineteen healthy subjects (12 females and 7 males, average age 18.2 ± 0.6 years) were then prospectively enrolled in a study to assess the reliability of an inertial sensor-based method for assessing spinal motion. Three raters each took three measurements of subjects' flexion/extension, right and left bending, and right and left rotation. Afterwards, one trial from each set of measurements was excluded. Correlations and the ICC (3,1) were used to assess intra-rater reliability, and ICC (3,2) was used to assess inter-rater reliability of the protocol. The baseline error of the sensor was 1.45°. Correlation and ICC (3,1) values for the protocol all exceeded 0.888, indicating high intra-rater reliability. ICC (3,2) values for the protocol exceed 0.87, indicating high inter-rater reliability. Our study presents both a paradigm for assessing the baseline error of inertial sensors and a protocol for assessing motion of the spine using an inertial sensing device.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationResearch into Spinal Deformities 9
EditorsXue-Cheng Liu, John G. Thometz
PublisherIOS Press BV
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9781643681825
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
ISSN (Print)0926-9630
ISSN (Electronic)1879-8365


  • Inertia sensor
  • reliability
  • spine motion


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