Background: Association of chromatin with lamin proteins at the nuclear periphery has emerged as a potential mechanism to coordinate cell type-specific gene expression and maintain cellular identity via gene silencing. Unlike many histone modifications and chromatin-associated proteins, lamina-associated domains (LADs) are mapped genome-wide in relatively few genetically normal human cell types, which limits our understanding of the role peripheral chromatin plays in development and disease. Results: To address this gap, we map LAMIN B1 occupancy across twelve human cell types encompassing pluripotent stem cells, intermediate progenitors, and differentiated cells from all three germ layers. Integrative analyses of this atlas with gene expression and repressive histone modification maps reveal that lamina-associated chromatin in all twelve cell types is organized into at least two subtypes defined by differences in LAMIN B1 occupancy, gene expression, chromatin accessibility, transposable elements, replication timing, and radial positioning. Imaging of fluorescently labeled DNA in single cells validates these subtypes and shows radial positioning of LADs with higher LAMIN B1 occupancy and heterochromatic histone modifications primarily embedded within the lamina. In contrast, the second subtype of lamina-associated chromatin is relatively gene dense, accessible, dynamic across development, and positioned adjacent to the lamina. Most genes gain or lose LAMIN B1 occupancy consistent with cell types along developmental trajectories; however, we also identify examples where the enhancer, but not the gene body and promoter, changes LAD state. Conclusions: Altogether, this atlas represents the largest resource to date for peripheral chromatin organization studies and reveals an intermediate chromatin subtype.
- 3D genome
- Cellular differentiation
- Lamina-associated domains
- Peripheral chromatin organization