An Assessment of Upper-Extremity Surgical Technique Videos and Their Relationship With Procedural Learning Theory

Daniel A. London, Ryley K. Zastrow, Paul J. Cagle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Our purpose was to ascertain how well award-winning and highly viewed upper-extremity surgical videos meet the needs of users and adhere to procedural learning theory. We hypothesized that upper-extremity videos hosted on academic society websites meet user needs better than upper-extremity videos hosted on a commercial website. Methods: Twenty-five upper-extremity videos were evaluated by 3 reviewers. A standardized scoring sheet was used to assess each video's content, production quality, and adequacy. Video lengths were compared. The inclusion frequencies of specific content categories, the adequacy of content, and meeting certain production standards, all of which assess consistency with procedural learning theory, were reported, stratified by video host. Associations between the video host and video content, production quality, and adequacy were assessed. Results: The median lengths of academically hosted and commercially hosted videos were similar. Regardless of the video host, no video contained information in all content categories. Sixty percent of the scored categories were present in less than 75% of evaluated videos. Academically hosted videos contained scored content more frequently than commercially hosted videos in 68.4% of categories. There were significant associations between academic hosts and inclusion of a case presentation, surgical indications, outcomes literature, a preoperative examination, follow-up visit intervals, and alternative surgical techniques. Overall, academically hosted videos had a higher percentage of adequate content categories compared with commercially hosted videos. Conclusions: Videos on academic websites more consistently meet users’ content needs and production expectations, as informed by procedural learning theory, while having higher rates of adequate content compared with videos on commercial websites. Clinical relevance: While academically hosted videos appear to more consistently adhere to the tenets of procedural learning theory, opportunity exists for video creators to more consistently apply procedural learning theory, allowing for the creation of even more educationally beneficial online surgical videos.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199.e1-199.e12
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Online videos
  • procedural learning theory
  • procedural training
  • resident education
  • surgical education


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