Background: There is a lack of studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in immigrants. Objective: The objective is to study the association between country of birth and incident ALS in first-generation immigrants versus Swedish-born individuals, and in second-generation immigrants versus native Swedes. Methods: Study populations included all adults aged 18 years and older in Sweden, in the first-generation study 6,128,698 individuals (2,975,141 men, 3,153,557 women) with 5,344 ALS cases (3017 men, 2327 women), and in the second-generation study 4,588,845 individuals (2,346,855 men and 2,241,990 women) with 3,420 cases (2027 men and 1393 women). ALS was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis of ALS in the National Patient Register 1998–2017. The incidence of ALS in different first-generation immigrant groups versus Swedish-born individuals was assessed by Cox regression, expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The models were stratified by sex and adjusted for age, geographical residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, the HRs were lower in foreign-born men, 0.71 (95% CI 0.63–0.81), and women, 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.92). The ALS risk was lower among men and women from most Western countries (Europe outside Nordic countries, and North America), and from other regions of the world (Africa, Asia, and Latin America). Among men and women with foreign-born parents, the risk of ALS did not differ significantly from native Swedes. Significance: In general, the risk of ALS was lower in first-generation men and women but did not differ in second-generation individuals.
- Socioeconomic status