Amygdala contributions to stimulus–reward encoding in the macaque medial and orbital frontal cortex during learning

Peter H. Rudebeck, Joshua A. Ripple, Andrew R. Mitz, Bruno B. Averbeck, Elisabeth A. Murray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus–reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus–reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus–reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus–reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2186-2202
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Issue number8
StatePublished - 22 Feb 2017


  • Amygdala
  • Learning
  • Macaque
  • Prefrontal
  • Reward


Dive into the research topics of 'Amygdala contributions to stimulus–reward encoding in the macaque medial and orbital frontal cortex during learning'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this