American Association of Clinical Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Primary Care and Endocrinology Clinical Settings: Co-Sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)

Kenneth Cusi, Scott Isaacs, Diana Barb, Rita Basu, Sonia Caprio, W. Timothy Garvey, Sangeeta Kashyap, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Marialena Mouzaki, Karl Nadolsky, Mary E. Rinella, Miriam B. Vos, Zobair Younossi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

339 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to endocrinologists, primary care clinicians, health care professionals, and other stakeholders. Methods: The American Association of Clinical Endocrinology conducted literature searches for relevant articles published from January 1, 2010, to November 15, 2021. A task force of medical experts developed evidence-based guideline recommendations based on a review of clinical evidence, expertise, and informal consensus, according to established American Association of Clinical Endocrinology protocol for guideline development. Recommendation Summary: This guideline includes 34 evidence-based clinical practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of persons with NAFLD and/or NASH and contains 385 citations that inform the evidence base. Conclusion: NAFLD is a major public health problem that will only worsen in the future, as it is closely linked to the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given this link, endocrinologists and primary care physicians are in an ideal position to identify persons at risk on to prevent the development of cirrhosis and comorbidities. While no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications to treat NAFLD are currently available, management can include lifestyle changes that promote an energy deficit leading to weight loss; consideration of weight loss medications, particularly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists; and bariatric surgery, for persons who have obesity, as well as some diabetes medications, such as pioglitazone and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus and NASH. Management should also promote cardiometabolic health and reduce the increased cardiovascular risk associated with this complex disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-562
Number of pages35
JournalEndocrine Practice
Volume28
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • GLP-1 RA
  • NAFLD
  • diabetes
  • pioglitazone
  • steatohepatitis
  • weight loss

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