ALV-J GP37 molecular analysis reveals novel virus-adapted sites and three tyrosine-based env species

Jianqiang Ye, Zhonglei Fan, Jianjun Shang, Xiaoyan Tian, Jialiang Yang, Hongjun Chen, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Compared to other avian leukosis viruses (ALV), ALV-J primarily induces myeloid leukemia and hemangioma and causes significant economic loss for the poultry industry. The ALV-J Env protein is hypothesized to be related to its unique pathogenesis. However, the molecular determinants of Env for ALV-J pathogenesis are unclear. In this study, we compared and analyzed GP37 of ALV-J Env and the EAV-HP sequence, which has high homology to that of ALV-J Env. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five groups of ALV-J GP37 and two novel ALV-J Envs with endemic GP85 and EAV-HP-like GP37. Furthermore, at least 15 virusadapted mutations were detected in GP37 compared to the EAV-HP sequence. Further analysis demonstrated that three tyrosine-based motifs (YxxM, ITIM (immune tyrosinebased inhibitory motif) and ITAM-like (immune tyrosine-based active motif like)) associated with immune disease and oncogenesis were found in the cytoplasmic tail of GP37. Based on the potential function and distribution of these motifs in GP37, ALV-J Env was grouped into three species, inhibitory Env, bifunctional Env and active Env. Accordingly, 36.91%, 61.74% and 1.34%of ALV-J Env sequences from GenBank are classified as inhibitory, bifunctional and active Env, respectively. Additionally, the Env of the ALV-J prototype strain, HPRS-103, and 17 of 18 EAV-HP sequences belong to the inhibitory Env. And models for signal transduction of the three ALV-J Env species were predicted. Our findings and models provide novel insights for identifying the roles and molecular mechanism of ALV-J Env in the unique pathogenesis of ALV-J.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0122887
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 7 Apr 2015

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